Saturday, September 24, 2016

your turn #5

Brad Holland, Junkie, 1972

this is a great moment in history for the graphic arts: children's books, calendars, cards, comics, puck, chromolithography, gibson, nast, pre-raphaelites, reception, morris, the idea of gesamtkunstwerk, victorian design vs. arts and crafts, a bunch of figures: millais, gaudy, pisarro, mckmurdo, madox brown, grasset, beardsley. 

go ahead! 

this is the list of images & concepts for our midterm exam (review)

here is a list of images for our Midterm Exam.

here is a list of concepts for our Midterm Exam.

1- Identification of images requires the following: Artist, Title, Year.
2- For the images I've added a bit more information, but only for your own knowledge. It never hurts to know more than less.
3- Regarding the list of concepts, i'm linking to Wikipedia articles. what you have there is the basic information-kernel you should know. my fill in the blank, or true/false, etc, questions will be based on that sort of succinct definition. 
4- It's important that you spell the names of these artists & tendencies correctly (if need be, practice the spelling).

we should have our midterm exam in two weeks, i.e., thursday october 6

Thursday, September 22, 2016

Jugedstil, Modernista, Art Nouveau

stairwell in Riga

Known as Jugendstil in Germany, Sezessionstil in Austria, Modernista in Spain, and Stile Liberty or Stile Floreale in Italy, Art Nouveau has become the general term applied to a highly varied movement that was European-centred but internationally current at the end of the century. 
gate of the castle beranger, hector guimard

Art Nouveau architects gave idiosyncratic expression to many of the themes that had preoccupied the 19th century, ranging from Viollet-le-Duc's call for structural honesty to Sullivan's call foran organic architecture. 

Taken from Le Duc's Dictionary of French Architecture 9-16th century
The extensive use of iron and glass in Art Nouveau buildings was also rooted in 19th-century practice. In France, bizarre forms appeared in iron, masonry, and concrete, such as the structures of Hector Guimard for the Paris Métro (c. 1900), the Montmartre church of Saint-Jean L'Évangéliste by Anatole de Baudot, Xavier Schollkopf's house for the actress Yvette Guilbert at Paris, and the Samaritaine Department Store (1905) near the Pont Neuf in Paris, by Frantz Jourdain. 

Art Nouveau architect's preference for the curvilinear is especially evident in the Brussels buildings ofthe Belgian Victor Horta. In the Hôtel Van Eetvelde (1895) he used floral, tendrilous ornaments.  

Decorative exploitation of the architectural surface with flexible, S-shaped linear ornament, commonly called whiplash or eel styles,was indulged in by the Jugendstil and Sezessionstil architects. The Studio Elvira at Munich (1897-98) by August Endell and Otto Wagner's Majolika Haus at Vienna (c. 1898) are two of the more significant examples of this German and Austrian use of line.

(1) make beautiful things available to everyone 
(2) no object is too utilitarian.
(3) nouveau sees no separation in principle between high and low and applied or decorative arts (ceramics, furniture, and other practical objects)
(4) nouveau reacts against the precise and clean geometry of Neoclassicism. it's a form of maximalism.
(5) a new graphic design language, as far away as possible from the historical and classical models employed by the arts academies. it's pretty free-spirited within the conventions of the time,

Alphonse Mucha

"After Alphonse Mucha presented his poster for Sarah Bernhardt's play, Gismonda in 1895(above), he became a celebrity. Spurning the bright colors and the more squarish shape of the more popular poster artists, the near life-size design was a sensation. Living above a cremerie that catered to art students, drawing illustrations for popular (ie. low-paying) magazines, getting deathly ill and living on lentils and borrowed money, Mucha met all the criteria. It was everything an artist's life was supposed to be. Some success, some failure. Friends abounded and art flourished. It was the height of Impressionism and the beginnings of the Symbolists and Decadents. He shared a studio with Gauguin for a bit after his first trip to the south seas."-- Jim Vadeboncoeur.

Mucha in his studio
Check this link from the Mucha's Foundation.

is Jules Chéret an early feminist?

Jules Chéret (1836-1932) was a French painter and who became a master of poster art. Often called the father of the modern poster. Influenced by the scenes of frivolity depicted in the works of Jean-Honoré Fragonard and other Rococo artists such as Antoine Watteau, Chéret created vivid poster ads for the cabarets, music halls, and theaters such as the Eldorado, the Olympia, the Folies Bergères, Theatre de l'Opera and the Moulin Rouge. As his work became more popular and his large posters displaying modestly free-spirited females found a larger audience, pundits began calling him the "father of the women's liberation." Above left, Chéret's Le Pays des Fées (1889) for The Universal Exposition.

This is a great source of chéret's illustrations!

Aubrey Beardsley's exquisite decadent style

the mirror of love

Aubrey Beardsley is the enfant terrible of Art Noveau, with his striking pen line, vibrant black-and-white works, and shockingly exotic imagery. He was intensely prolific for only five years and died of tuberculosis at age twenty-six (MHG). Beardsley did illustrations for The Yellow Book, a leading journal for Aestheticism (England's foremost decadent movement). Above, right, poster for Isolde (1895).

early aubrey beardsley

late beardsley

then there are the wonderfully seditious lysistrata illustrations.

Lucien & Esther Pissarro

Lucien & Esther Pissarro's pages from Ishtar's Descent to the NetherWorld (1903), where image, color, and ornament combine to generate an intense expressionistic energy. In Britain Lucien (Camille Pissarro's eldest son) established friendly contacts with the Pre-Raphaelites and plein-air painters. In 1894 he founded the Eragny Press (the name comes from a place near Dieppe), which played a significant role in the development of European book art. In 1911 he became a co-founder of the Camden Town Group and in 1919 a co-founder of the Monarro group, which propagated Impressionism in England.

Margaret MacDonald: The White Cockade tea room menu, 1911


This menu design for a tea room at the Glasgow Exhibition shows the evolution toward geometric and modular form. The composition of motifs, borders, and delicately defined solid volumes established a language of interlaced lines and flat shapes that works abstractly. The attention to order and arrangement of forms moves dramatically ways from the illustration, although the female face, rose, and hand hint at sensuality.The degree of abstraction of this work indicates the readiness for the repeatable modularity essential to design in an industrial context. The patterns echo the geometric system that Mackintosh used to organize his architectural elements (GDCG).
or this,

or this,

the "nouveau" touch of Eugène Grasset

Eugène Grasset (1845-1917) was an admirer of Egyptian motifs and Japanese art, both of which influenced his creative designs. Grasset worked as a painter and sculptor in Lausanne snf moved to Paris in 1871 where he designed furniture fabrics and tapestries as well as ceramics and jewelry. His fine art decorative pieces were crafted from ivory, gold and other precious materials in unique combinations and his creations are considered a cornerstone of Art Nouveau motifs and patterns. He turned to graphic design in 1877, producing income-generating products such as postcards and eventually postage stamps for both France and Switzerland. However, it was poster art that quickly became his forté.(Above, Grasset's exhibition poster for Salon des Cent, 1894).

advertising was the first specialty to become fully established

By late 19th century when the advertising agency of N.W. Ayer & Son was founded. Ayer and Son offered to plan, create, and execute complete advertising campaigns for its customers. By 1900 the advertising agency had become the focal point of creative planning, and advertising was firmly established as a profession. Around the same time, in France, Charles-Louis Havas extended the services of his news agency, Havas to include advertisement brokerage, making it the first French group to organize. At first, agencies were brokers for advertisement space in newspapers. N. W. Ayer & Son was the first full-service agency to assume responsibility for advertising content. N.W. Ayer opened in 1869, and was located in Philadelphia.

Rudolph Koch (the northern influence)

Rudolph Koch was for most of his career the staff designer at the Klingspor type foundry in Offenbach. Early work by Peter Behrens and Otto Eckmann showed a clear Jugendstil culture upon which he built, designing revised blackletter faces. He combined the talents of punch cutter and calligrapher, two skills sometimes at odds with each other (above Koch various specimens).

Some of Koch well known fonts.

Here a list of Koch's "Christian symbols."

Frederic W. Goudy

Born in Bloomington, Illinois in 1865, Frederic W. Goudy, was one of the most well known and prolific American type designers. Frederic Goudy is best known for his type-styles: Oldstyle, Kennerly, Garamond, Deepdone and Forum. 

What do we see here? 

Essentially Goudy took the notion of the private press typeface inaugurated by William Morris and extended it to the larger world of commerce. Kennerley, the typeface designed for The Door in the Wall by H.G. Wells (published by Mitchell Kennerley, 1911), was the turning point in his career, the moment when type design began to overtake lettering and private press printing as his principal activity.

art for art's sake

a term oscar wild made famous: l'art pour l'art. 

a view known as aestheticism, which is synonymous with symbolism or decadence (decadentismo in italy). the movement happens from around 1870-1901. it's generally considered to have ended with the trial of oscar wilde.

(the Dutch influence) Lebeau's batik style

An example of Chris Lebeau's design. He produced some of the most striking and complex designs in batik and was successful in assimilating traditional patterns and colors of the East Indies into his own work.

Lebeau's book design

What is batik?

Of Javanese origin, amba ('to write') and titik ('dot' or 'point'), also 'to tattoo' from the use of a needle in the process. The word is first recorded in English in the Encyclopædia Britannica of 1880, in which it is spelled battik.

Lebeau's wall paper (circa 1920s)

what do we see here?

1- a cloth that is traditionally made using a manual wax-resist dyeing technique.
2- Javanese traditional batik has meanings rooted to the Javanese conceptualization of the universe.
3- Traditional colours include indigo, dark brown, and white, which represent the three major Hindu Gods (Brahmā, Vishnu, and Śiva).
4- This is related to the fact that natural dyes are most commonly available in indigo and brown. Certain patterns can only be worn by nobility; traditionally, wider stripes or wavy lines of greater width indicated higher rank.