Saturday, February 4, 2012

Your turn #3

Koo-koo, "the bird girl"

Great class. There is plenty to talk about: communities of belief, early newspapers, charts, Blake, Romanticism, daguerreotype, political satire, photo-portraiture.

Pick your favorite topic!


Anonymous said...

I think the two most interesting things we discussed were the beginnings of art as a political movement, through satirical drawings, and also the beginnings of photography as a hobby. I feel like art to many people is alienating, at least at higher "skill" levels, because of the intense skill required for painting and photography. Doodling, cartooning, and the use of Kodak cameras to record even the most minute details brought the ability to make art much more accessible to the public. This also meant that many more interesting influences and perspectives could make a difference in the art world, and brought international attention to many historical events and people that otherwise may not have had access or been given a second glance.

-Stephanie Kryzak

Anonymous said...

Also, we discussed Google in class and how they are making many more things (map, for one great example) free and accessible to many more people. I found this website (
that is in planning, a sort of "google maps" but for art history, even allowing the user to tour inside of many popular museums, like MoMA.

-Stephanie Kryzak

atRifF said...

tx for the site, stephanie.

Anonymous said...

Unlike most art of the 19th century, portrait photography as art does not try to capture a single moment in time; rather it attempts to capture the essence of the entire person. The photo that you posted, Koo-koo, “the bird girl” is interesting. I feel that the artist wasn’t necessarily trying to capture his subject’s true personality. The look on her face seems forced and humiliated. Perhaps this is why the artist took this image, to show the feelings of those who the general public may view as “freaks” or sideshows. It’s interesting to think about their feelings and to have them captured in a photograph.

Alexandra Roe

Anonymous said...

One of the most interesting topics we talked about in last class is the photo-portraiture. It is said photography started from science, and I really think that photo-portraiture has the same preciseness style as science. I learnt how to develop black and white film several years ago, comparing with taking pictures by digital cameras, the procedures are very complicated and easy to screw up, almost like an experiment for me. However, it does make better photos. The photo portraits taken by Nadar is amazing, he didn’t consider photography as an easier or more convenient way than drawing. Instead, the effort and time for him to taking a photo portrait is most same as drawing a portrait. His photos capture the most important characteristics of people, and they are definitely master pieces of art. Today we can take snapshots and the photo comes out less than one second, it is fast and fun, but it is not ART. I really agree with what you said in the class: Let’s not talk about entertainment. Let’s make really good things. I hope the development of photography industry can bring us more good photographs, not more meaningless snapshot for fun.

Qiansongzi Chen

Anonymous said...

Photos as portraits are one of the more in depth types of photography because it requires effort on both sides of the camera. To be able to take a photograph of an image in nature or to capture a moment between people without them knowing is one thing, but to have a person look exactly how you would like them to while they are knowingly being recorded is another, more difficult challenge. If you wish to capture the true essence of a person, they have to feel comfortable in both the photographer’s and the camera’s presence. This takes work from the photographer, and not all personalities exude “relaxation”. Forget the intricate lighting and even backgrounds to capture a beautiful portrait. If the subject is uncomfortable, there will be tension in the photograph, and it will possibly make the viewer uncomfortable. Having experienced being on both sides of the camera, I know first hand that is not easy getting someone to “be themselves”, and it is certainly no easy task to completely relax, especially if the photographer is asking you to do abnormal things.

Lauren Hahamovitch

joyce sosa said...

It is interesting how art starts changing with the development of photography. This happens because by painting a portrait of a person a lot of the artist influence is translated to the piece. Depending on the style, brushstroke, colors , the artist uses, it will give each painting a personality and can even send a different message to the audience. However when you take a picture you are not altering the person in any way, it is the person in the raw, as natural as it can be. This is something that i like about photography, you freeze the moment just as it is, meanwhile with the painting a lot of things can influence the finished piece as time passes. Although photography has advanced a lot technologically, i have taken black and white photography courses and it is almost as a painting. You have to develop the film, choose the paper, develop the photo in every chemical , let it dry, in other words you end up having a connection with your picture as if you were painting a portrait.

Anonymous said...

The concept of fine art verses graphic design really fascinated me this week. There seems to be a perception that there is a distinction between the high art of academic tradition and the lower, less skilled art of design. As art historians we recognise that this isn’t necessarily the case. All types of art can have value and quality.

However, with the development of photography, we have been subjected to a bombardment of images, an attack on the senses. The issue of distinguishing the worthy from the disposable is one that we all face.

In class we discussed photography as a hobby, particularly with regards to Kodak, the iphone, instagram etc. Do these throwaway images desensitise us to true art? Or does the increasingly accessible nature of photography prevent art from remaining an alienated concept. Everyone can participate in design – as we said before – design is a social activity and an innate part of our human nature.

Harriet Ashton

Amy said...

I think incorporating the topic of Blake in the discussion was really interesting. I always saw Blake as somewhat of a graphic designer because of his play with words and images. He utilizes the concept of typography into his books and uses alignment to organize his page structure. To me, his letters seem to perfectly blend with the illustrations. The title pages from the book of Thel illustrate this concept.This goes back to last week's discussion of typography being an integral part of a design.

Luzyanis Fraga said...

Even though we covered many interesting topics last class I would like to focus on Romanticism from the point of view of an architect. Romanticism is a movement in reaction to the Industrial revolution and the era of enlightenment of the 18th century. It emphasizes intuition, imagination, and feeling. Romanticism essentially continues with the present. Famous modern american architect, Frank Lloyd Wright, considered himself a romantic. He believed that romance is not only proper to architecture but it is the only salvation of the art in our time. His theory is that buildings should not depend solely in industrialized machines; instead they should be organic. He emphasized his career in the integration of buildings to its natural surroundings. His approach was to determined his buildings by the site and the human use for which it is intended. In my opinion contemporary architects and designers should employ similar techniques of design than those of Frank Lloyd Wright. Architects should take more into consideration natural elements instead of depending solely in technology. The integration of buildings with the surroundings should be a point of focus of architects of our era.

Anonymous said...

Last class, we started off by talking about generation gaps and how they will always exist. Beliefs and styles go hand in hand with these generation gaps and as time changes, so does art. Romanticism was a very sexual, sensual, and humanistic era. The graphic design during this era brought up many social issues. Artists would really portray their beliefs through their work. Much of the illustrations had a recurrent theme of abandonment and betrayal.
We also spoke about photography and how a basic portrait can tell us so much about a person. It captures the over all being. Words cannot describe somebody the way a picture does. If I were to start to analyze this picture of ‘the bird girl’, I would definitely say it is romantic in the sense that it is very depressing and lonely. It seems as if this a person is not quite sure of who they are or their place in society. It has no sex to it; you cannot tell if it is a male or female. Which then causes a social issue. What is male or female? This photo really got me thinking about romanticism and photography as one.

- Erika Gonzalez-Rebull

Anonymous said...

Last class we discussed about the development of newspapers which allowed thousands of people to become informed about what was going on around them in their towns, cities, and worldwide. These newspapers were vital to informing and communicating with individuals because they were printed on a daily basis in order to keep up with the occurrences of the day. Nowadays, sales in newspapers have declined and moved towards online publishing. In a previous class, the professor talked about how one of his students was not as happy to have their first publication to be online instead of a hard physical newspaper because it wasn’t the same. I think this feeling of difference is because it is so simple for someone to publish something on the internet through a blog or other social media sites. There is more thought process and requirements when publishing for a printed work. Newspapers now have the First Amendment to support them and allow writers to voice their opinions without the fear of persecution unlike John Locke. He was required to publish his works in the Netherlands because they had a clearer understanding of his opinions. Lastly, in relation to political satire, I thought of RenĂ© Magritte "The Treachery Of Image" because he angered a lot of people but was not afraid to create his drawings. Even though he wasn’t a political artist, he challenged the way we look at artwork and how easily we can forget the difference between artwork and the real world.

Ashley Bahamon

can zarb said...

Last class we discussed about the usefulness of charts. They really are, they are self explanatory and creative. We also said that it was a great achievement of design because there is no need for words when we have charts in front of us. And we see different kinds of charts which supports the idea that the charts are great examples of design.
We also talked about the romanticism that it was a reaction against several things including art, therefore it effects design too. It was started in England and Germany in 1770s and then it was spread to Europe. It was started as a rejection to the current time. Romanticism interest in Gothic which we spoke in the class as well.
“I must create a system or be enslaved by another mans; I will not reason and compare: my business is to create.” William Blake.

Read more:

And another link for “redesigning the body”

Ana Trinchet said...

In my opinion all themes covered in class were very interesting. However I find amusing political satire as a form of expression. It is very interesting how the human being always find a way to let their thoughts find the public attention. Political satire comes since the Romans because of their lack of political freedom. It was through political satire in the theatres and by comic poets that the public opinion was enormously influenced. It is said and I think it is very true that by watching or reading satire is considered one of the best ways to understand a culture and a society. For example the work of the Polish artist Pawel Kuczynski. In my opinion with his work he trying to call for the people attention, and with it make them see reality.

Here is a link to some of his works:

Ana Trinchet

Patty Alfaro said...

Talking about Romanticism last class made me think about similar movements now. “Steampunk” is not so popular here in Miami, mostly because of the weather, but it is a stylistic subset of the DIY and counter-culture communities across many parts of the US and the world. For the past 10 years or so, it has increasingly seeped into design, most notably fashion, but also technology. Steampunk reinvents a past in which modern technology is built into eclectic versions of Victorian or Neo-Victorian styles. Science fiction, gothic horror novels, and Victorian orientalism also coexist in this reinvented past played out in the present. There is an obvious rejection of mass produced products in favor of items that celebrate individuality, mechanical intricacy, attention to detail, craftsmanship, and quality. Steampunk romanticizes a past and then brings it into the present. Although Steampunk touts science and technology instead of the humanity and emotions preferred during Romanticism, I think they are still similar enough in their protest of their respective modern times.

Emilee Lau said...

According to His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, above all else a true sense of community is the key to finding happiness. This may explain how print and other forms of visual communication have grown dramatically and served as powerful instruments during times such as the Enlightenment and even the apex of the British Empire. Francisco Goya’s satirical “Los Caprichos” come to mind as a powerful example of late 18th century political humor and serves as the perfect model for how communities of belief are created through visual communication. Another example mentioned during class was the Penny Magazine, which provided its British working class readers with information as well as a sense of utilitarianism during the height of their political and industrial power. It is apparent that books and other visual communication alike have served as vitals tool in solidifying belief systems without which communities would not be united.

Also, I liked the discussion on typography and how the development of different typefaces played with our psychology of reading. The New York Times reported on a study that proved messy handwriting and hard-to-read fonts are more easily remembered than their clear, legible counterparts. In fact, some studies are asserting that e-books and web articles are actually making our brains “lazy.” So in light of that information I set out to find something that would help exercise my lazy brain and I found this to be quite adequate and wanted to share it with others looking to sharpen their minds:

Isaac Stein said...

Photography has evolved over time with technology, mostly for the bad. Yeah you can use a Hasselblad and put on a digital back and take 60 mp photos and see what the difference in aperture, shutter, lens, lighting, etc. has on the effect of the image and learn almost instantaneously on how to manipulate images to create a certain feel, but no one does that. Instead we take ‘5’ mp iPhone snapshots that dictate all adjustments and record whatever useless moments one would like to capture. And in turn, make every photo in the world a little less important and authentic. Photo portraits have gone from identification certificates to “is that photoshopped?”

I really enjoy thought out photo portraits. They express as much as paintings with the amount of decisions in the capturing and developing stages. Alphonse Bertillon used portraits beyond just the ability to create nostalgic memories or be self-expressive, but as a science. He invented the Bertillon system, which created anthropometry, the identification system of physical measurements. What is now simply a mug shot, was once the ground breaking study of Paris inmate’s physical features in a highly organized and extended collection. Bertillon compared physical aspects of inmates and organized the developed images on cards to allow the police to easily notify repeat criminals and to reference the typical features to track suspects. For he said himself, “Every measurement slowly reveals the workings of the criminal. Careful observation and patience will reveal the truth.”

Isaac Stein said... - link to photos

Anonymous said...

I find political satire very interesting. It provides a great historical example of social commentaries throughout the years. Although it is supposed to primarily for entertainment purposes, I also think these commentaries are the best way to provide an unobstructed view of what was happening at the time. It is also a very clever way of making a point without being persecuted for your views. Politicians have always existed. As long as there is a leader there will always be a critic. It’s great to see how this type of commentary has evolved over the years. A combination of current technology and the current political situation has provided new and entertaining ways and outlets for satirists to express their views. Examples of this are and . Despite these advances though, I find irony in the fact that politics and the reason for political satire have remained the same since the beginning.

Suelyn Chong

Anonymous said...

Last class we talked about photo-portraiture which was very interesting for me because I study photography and portraits are what I like to shoot the most. Photography has always been very important in our lives because it is saving the moment. Especially portraits are very valuable because they show feelings, emotions and expressions.
We also talked about Blake and the era of Romanticism. I studied both Romanticism and Blake and before I learned about them I expected something different. I thought that Romanticism would be more romantic and poetic however it ended up being very realistic, dark and hidden. William Blake also has paintings that are very direful but still extraordinary.

Ela Apa

Ernest said...

One of my favorite topics from last class was the use of art as a way of protest against the government. Political satire is a topic that really amuses me. It can be dated back throughout history. Aristophanes is said to be the oldest example till today. He dates back to the Greek empire; his satire was aimed at some of the top politicians of the time and even religion, which at the time was still based in what we know today as Greek mythology. It is know that political satire it’s strong enough to influence the masses, and even change the political views of general populations; that’s why I believe that they shouldn’t be taken lightly, they are a great topic to both study and follow; there is political satire going on at all time, in all societies and at all levels of them; I believe that if you want to get good picture of some of the problems that attack a certain society, you have to go no further than to see or listen some of the political satire that’s taken place around it.

Ernest Morales

kaitlin said...

Charts and maps were an interesting part of last week’s discussion. The concept of the chart, as a means to visually convey data to the masses is similar to the widespread availability of books. Two charts or maps conveying the same data could be designed so differently. I like the idea of individual expression and innovation within the confines of the goal, to convey specific information. This got me thinking about info graphics, and Roni Levit, a designer whose studio I visited when studying in Israel. Levit talked about the process of creating her book, Atlas Israel, which she described as a cultural atlas of Israel.

She used info graphics to convey cultural information, such as food, religion, dress, and language. Such a culturally complex country is well suited to being expressed through infographics. Levi expressed that choosing the way in which she would portray a piece of culture what the most creatively rewarding step of her process. Unfortunately there aren’t any English translations of her work. I remember what some pages of the atlas convey: the color-coded stadium shows the different languages and profanities you’d hear in each section, and a photo diagram compares elements of falafel from different places.

more infographics:

Lindsey Reiff said...

Last week’s discussion got me thinking more about political humor. Thackeray’s quote about humor’s purpose being much more than to make us laugh really resonated with me. I believe that humor often serves as an outlet for anger, and I think that this tends to hold especially true with political satire. Maybe because we feel so small and powerless in the situation, all there really is to do is laugh. When we look at Le Charivari and the illustrations in The New Yorker today, both serve the same function- to present a serious critique that is usually not comical at all beneath the surface. This is also the case with shows like The Daily Show and The Colbert Report. The material is presented in a hilarious way, but most of it really isn’t funny. I think most of us would agree that it is incredibly frightening how childish and self-indulgent the recent election has gotten, and many are very scared for the future of our country, but again, what else is there to really do besides laugh and hope for the best?

Lisandra said...

Last class was really interesting but my favorite topic was the Photo as a Portrait. At this moment I’m taking History of Photography class and we have covered this topic before which fascinates me. This new idea of a portrait was a more accurate way for people to keep memories than the portrait painting. The painting was always influenced by the interpretation of the artist, the way the artist will look at you and his idea of your personality in the other hand the photograph portrait had the intention to display the likeness, personality and even the mood of the subject. The portrait has changed the way we look at photography. In today’s day I don’t think society could imagine a world without the portrait. In my opinion this was an enormous invention because it gave the opportunity for the poor class to be able to preserve the past in a very economical and precise way.

This is a very good website that gives you tips for taking great photographs.

Jacinta Yong said...

Realizing the sheer impact technology has on how we communicate and art history, it makes me step back and notice these influences. Beginning with the printing press, when news before often was through word of mouth, pamphlets we think about today are one page, but in the past they were like books they were so thick. People would actually read these pamphlets because they craved the information since that was nearly the only other communication vehicle besides word of mouth to hear about current events. When the telegraph came along and the Morse code, every word that was transferred was charged so journalists changed the way they reported. They often had to make their messages shorter and often leaving out details in the process. Then the camera with the daguerreotype and many other inventions came along. The idea of being able to capture a moment without having artist paint it must have been so abstract and threatening to people and especially artists of the time. I think of the Impressionists like Monet, Degas, and Renoir who began to paint differently because of this invention. They brought the canvas outside of the studio and surrounded in nature. Their short brushstrokes became like pixels, fast and fleeting like a photo.

Alexa Prosniewski said...

With today's modern technology and ever increasing accessibility of it, there are more outlets of design than ever. The average American owns a smartphone, like the iphone, which has a decent quality built in camera and apps that allow you to express yourself creatively.
Owning an iphone has exposed me to photography and editing as a hobby which is why I find this especially interesting. Mobile Uploads are not universally accepted as art, however the iphone 4s has an 8 megapixel revolution which could definitely suffice in capturing quality images. Or if they don't turn out initially, apps can fix them.
Apps also introduce another degree of design with editing and effects. This is a relatively newly available element of design for the general public. Yes photoshop has been out for years, but it is expensive and not as simple and easy to use as the apps we can access in the palm of our hands. Editing pictures with effects makes photography an even more personal and creative form of expression, not to mention more artistic.
I feel like with time it will be hard to deny this new generation of photography as high art because our generation will only get better with it. Standards need to change with time. We need to let go of what we hold of what history has deemed as high art and realize that art is changing. We need to change with it and realize that we aren't lowering our expectations to appreciate say an iphone picture, but only broadening them to accept different types of quality.

Jamie said...

Photo portraits have a special place in the world of art. It depicts reality as a photo would, but it conveys a controlled reality or one that was desired by the artist behind the camera. A portrait is, from an artistic perspective (as opposed to merely being used for functional purposes), meant to show the true character of the subject. Every aspect of the photo is controlled in a way that will contribute to the desired tone. When I observe "Koo-koo the Bird Girl," I initially get a feeling of discomfort because of the awkward pose. Perhaps this pose was chosen to convey the strange nature of the subject because of her assumed label as a "freak-show." She is, in a way, being put on display for curious viewers.

Jamie Shankman

Augie Kazickas said...

An old history teacher of mine revealed the power of political cartoons one day in class. He told the students that the capture of political fugitive and corrupt Gilded Age politician Boss Tweed, was due entirely to famed cartoonist Thomas Nast. Foreign authorities had allegedly recognized Tweed from a Nast newspaper lampoon and arrested him promptly.

Punch remains potent to this day because it is and always will be the voice of the abused, mistreated, and ill informed. The 99%. In this light of rebellion, political satire represents the same attitude of protest that Romantics held in the 18th century. Just as romantics resisted the standardization of nature and humanism, satirists rebel against the injustices of the time, mostly political. In fact, political cartoons of today reflect Romanticism in their ridicule of a bloated federal government that threatens surely Romantic views of individualism and libertarianism.

The graphic design of political cartoons themselves resemble Romantics. Most cartoons are drawn and written free hand script, devoid of the standard newspaper typeface. In addition, the layout of newspapers creates an isolated island of cartoon. If I was surrounded by an of mass-produced and standardization I would cry out to.

Anonymous said...

One lesson I learned from an art critic I respect very much is that the concept of art is the element or aesthetic creation that allows a forum for discussion. If we base our definition of what art is on this theory, we can allow ourselves to incorporate all types of art. Whether they would be deemed as "high" or "low" art would not really be the issue. Artists that began creating "low" art such as graffitis (like Jean-Michel Basquiat) ultimately transcended to the high art sphere because they were posing questions on society and enabling this forum for discussion. Today with blogs and social media we take open discussion for granted, but during a time when technology as we know it today didn't exist, one would attend gallery openings and museum lectures to immerse in these discussions

Alejandra Esayag

Anonymous said...

One lesson I learned from an art critic I respect very much is that the concept of art is the element or aesthetic creation that allows a forum for discussion. If we base our definition of what art is on this theory, we can allow ourselves to incorporate all types of art. Whether they would be deemed as "high" or "low" art would not really be the issue. Artists that began creating "low" art such as graffitis (like Jean-Michel Basquiat) ultimately transcended to the high art sphere because they were posing questions on society and enabling this forum for discussion. Today with blogs and social media we take open discussion for granted, but during a time when technology as we know it today didn't exist, one would attend gallery openings and museum lectures to immerse in these discussions

Alejandra Esayag

Anonymous said...

Of the topics we discussed in the previous class, I thought political satire is one of the most interesting. When you think about, graphic political satire goes hand-in-hand with democracy. It a cleaver tool to persuade an audience to an idea. As discussed, it became popular in Brittan, and then spread into free democracies around the world. It is interesting to think about America in the mid early 1800s, when the mass voting population was not completely literate. Political cartoons and satires were a significant dogmatic tool used to express a political notion. I could only imagine the command of these powerful images over less educated Americans.
The tool still exists today. Newspapers across the world have political cartoons every Sunday morning complaining about governments of all scales. Perhaps the most eminent source for political satire could be found in the New Yorker Magazine where issues are draw with a whimsically nostalgic hand. Though Americans as a whole have become smarter, these images still serve as blow horns for politics.

-Eric Rodgers

Anonymous said...


Haley said...

Your Post #1: Design as individual mark, as communication, as expression, as lebenswelt.
Design is in everything. Design is the fundamental basis of everything we see, use, experience, and are. I believe that we design our lives and our personal lebenswelt on both a conscious and subconscious level. For the most part our personal style is a result of a conscious state. We wake up in the morning and dress ourselves in clothes that attract us. But why did you choose those specific articles of clothing today? Certainly most people have more than one shirt that is wearable and of their style. I believe when we dress ourselves, our subconscious is actually doing more choosing than the conscious. I think if I decide to wear a particular color or style, it has more to do with my current mood, and current experiences, than what I think looks best or is convenient. I suppose this may derive from a more creative personality, however even the laziest, unfashionable person makes choices when getting dressed. Did they choose the first shirt they could find? Or did they throw that one back in the drawer because they would rather wear black today? Of course one's style in fashion is a miniscule aspect of ones personal style and/or design. Another ascpect of ones' style lies is communication.
The way we speak is an interesting and somewhat vulnerable door into the essence of who we are as individuals. The Communication Accommodation Theory, developed by Howard Giles argues that “when people interact they adjust their speech, their vocal patterns and their gestures, to accommodate to others”[1] " This is fascinating to me, and true. As humans, we have an innate desire to please people. We want people to like us. With communication, people change the way they speak to conform to certain situations. For example, we hear people cursing and making crude jokes to their friends all the time. Often those same "truck-driver mouths" adjust their attitudes and speech in professional and family settings.
Not only may people change their words, but even pitch, tone, and slight accent differences are noticeable. I recently read an article that stated that people are actually more attracted to a person's style and the way they speak, than their physical attraction. People are initially attracted by physical attraction, but more so their style, and once the person of interest opens their mouth, their style of speech can make or break them.
Design is in everything. We manifest our strongest desires and needs in our live. Our more obvious personal expression manifests itself in our personality, style, and speech, but our actual world (as well as our style) is manifested by a series of choices, experiences, and moments in our lives that both our conscious and subconscious work together to mold our minds and design our worlds.

Haley said...

Your Turn #2: The stylistic development of typeface globally is an interesting aspect to analyze in terms of design. The basis of differences in global preferences stems from differences in culture. Human beings have a need to feel a sense of belonging. Since the beginning of time, people have been developing particular ways of doing things. Whether that be through some form of communication, hunting, rituals, religion, gender roles, entertainment, business, or any part of life. These ways of doing things in a certain way fall into the definition of culture. Different regions and societies have different cultures. Within communities, individuality is evident, however certain needs and desires are common. Different cultures have different traits are preferences. People on one side of the world speak differently, dress differently, and have different ways of doing things than people on the other side. More relatively, people in one town have a different culture than the town next to them. Even neighboring communities often differ, falling into a design of a particular culture. Culture is a result of history and geographical barriers. We are all humans, we are all the same at the core. However our cultures help us to identify with a community, and help design and define individuality. The stylistic development of any taste, including typeface preferences, stem from culture.

Haley said...

Koo-Koo "The bird girl" was born Minnie Woolsey in Georgia in 1880. Nearly 80 years after the the movement of Romanticism, Minnie Woolsey exemplifies criticisms of society and the need for further rebellion against social and political norms. The movement of Romanticism resulted after the Age of Enlightenment, and a revolt to what was considered "normal" and scientifically correct. During the era of Romanticism, people were questioning everything. Who's to say what is considered socially and political normal? Who's to say which pieces of art and literature are beautiful, and which are just not good? Who determines what is aesthetically pleasing?
Minnie Woolsey was not born the typical beauty. Doctors today believe that she was born with Virchow-Seckel syndrome, which would explain her small head, attributes, and "bird-like" appearance. Woolsey went on to become a sideshow circus act, and eventually had success in film! Her unique appearance was praised in the entertainment world, and ultimately became her legacy. Romanticism and the (arguably) forward progression of society has opened doors to a more accepting society, leading to higher self-esteem, self-fulfillment, and more possibilities and unique design. Romanticism and Minnie Woolsey are pieces of the puzzle, of the design, that have helped construct the progression of society and individual design.