Tuesday, February 17, 2009

List of concepts Midterm, Fall 2017

Incunabulum: Is a book, pamphlet, or broadside, that was printed — not handwritten — before the year 1501 in Europe.
Moveable type: Movable type is the system of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation).
Typography: is the art and technique of arranging type, type design, and modifying type glyphs. Type glyphs are created and modified using a variety of illustration techniques, such as typefaces, point size, line length, line spacing, adjusting spaces between groups of letters, etc. 
Linotype machine: The Linotype typesetting machine is a line casting machine used in printing, which produces an entire line of metal type at once. The machine revolutionized typesetting and newspaper publishing, making it possible for a relatively small number of operators to set type for many pages on a daily basis. 
Camera obscura: is an optical device that projects an image of its surroundings on a screen. It is used in drawing and for entertainment, and was one of the inventions that led to photography.
Daguerrotype: The daguerreotype is the first publicly announced photographic process. It was developed by Louis Daguerre together with Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. Niépce had produced the first photographic image in the camera obscura using asphaltum on a copper plate sensitized with lavender oil that required very long exposures.
Pictorialism: is the name given to a photographic movement in vogue from around 1885 following the widespread introduction of the dry-plate process. It reached its height in the early years of the 20th century, and declined rapidly after 1914 after the widespread emergence of Modernism.
Chromolithography: A very popular method for making multi-color prints during the second half of the Nineteenth Century. This type of color printing stemmed from the process of lithography, and it includes all types of lithography that are printed in color.
Arts and Crafts Movement: An international design movement that originated in England and flourished between 1880s and 1920s, as a reaction against the impoverished state of the decorative arts and the conditions under which they were produced. It was Instigated by artist and writer William Morris in the 1860s and inspired by the writings of John Ruskin.
The Kelmscot Press: Perhaps the most famous of the private presses, William Morris established the Kelmscott Press at Hammersmith in January 1891. Between then and 1898, the press produced 53 books (totaling some 18,000 copies).
Symbolism : A late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts. In literature, the movement had its roots in Les Fleurs du mal (The Flowers of Evil, 1857) by Charles Baudelaire and the aesthetic developed by Stéphane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and 1870s.
Art Nouveau: An international movement and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that peaked in popularity at the turn of the 20th century (1890–1905). Art Nouveau is also known as Jugendstil ("youth style"). A reaction to academic art of the 19th century, Art Nouveau is characterized by organic, especially floral and other plant-inspired motifs, as well as highly stylized, flowing curvilinear forms.
The Yellow Book: It was a quarterly literary periodical and a leading journal of the British 1890s; to some degree associated with Aestheticism and Decadence, the magazine contained a wide range of literary and artistic genres, poetry, short stories, essays, book illustrations, portraits, and reproductions of paintings.
Futurism: An avant-garde movement initiated by poet Filippo Marinetti. Futurism defends speed, technology and violence (favorite symbols are the car, the plane and the industrial town). Futurists represented the technological triumph of people over nature. Graphic artists: Fortunato Depero and Giacomo Balla.
Dada: Nihilistic movement in the arts that flourished in Zürich, New York City, Berlin, Cologne, Paris, and Hannover, Germany from 1917-1923. Dada defends a nihilistic, antirationalistic attitude. Dada artists concentrated on anti-war propaganda through activities, demonstrations, and publication of art/literary journals. Graphic artists: John Heartfield, Raoul Haussman, Hannah Höch.
Constructivism: An artistic and architectural movement in Russia from 1919 onward (especially present after the October Revolution) which dismissed "pure" art in favor of a highly formal almost abstract art used as an instrument for the construction of a socialist system. Graphic artists: Alexander Rodchenko, El Lissitzky, Gustav Klutsis and Valentina Kugalina.
Die Neue Tipographie:(Modern typography)A modern, universal method of communication developed by Lissitzky, Tschichold & Maholy Nagy & BAUHAUS in the 1920's.DNT's main contributions are: 1- rationality, 2- sans-serif typeface, 3- simplicity & legibility, asymmetric layout, photo-montage. Form dictates function.