Friday, April 15, 2011

List of topics and movements for Final Exam

Futurism: An avant-garde movement initiated by poet Marinetti (who produced his Manifesto of Futurism in 1909) characterized by loathing the past (i.e. political and artistic traditions). Futurism defends speed, technology and violence (favorite symbols are the car, the plane and the industrial town). Futurists represented the technological triumph of people over nature. Graphic artists: Fortunato Depero and Giacomo Balla.

Suprematism: (1915) An art movement which seeks  the production of fundamental geometric forms forms, such the square, triangle and circle. Artist: Kasimir Malevich.

Dada: Nihilistic movement in the arts that flourished in Zürich, New York City, Berlin, Cologne, Paris, and Hannover, Germany from 1917-1923. Dada defends a nihilistic, antirationalistic attitude. Dada artists concentrated on anti-war propaganda through activities, demonstrations, and publication of art/literary journals. Graphic artists: John Heartfield, Raoul Haussman, Hannah Höch.

Constructivism: An artistic and architectural movement in Russia from 1919 onward (especially present after the October Revolution) which dismissed "pure" art in favor of a highly formal almost abstract art used as an instrument for the construction of a socialist system. Graphic artists: Alexander Rodchenko, El Lissitzky, Gustav Klutsis and Valentina Kugalina.

Bauhaus: School of design, architecture, and applied arts that existed in Germany from 1919 to 1933. It was based in Weimar until 1925, Dessau through 1932, and Berlin in its final months. Founded by the architect Walter Gropius. The curriculum trained students equally in art and in technically expert craftsmanship, so it sought to end the schism between the arts and the applied arts. Graphic artists: Lázló Moholy-Nagy, Herbet Bayer, Johannes Itten.

Die Neue Tipographie (Modern typography)A modern, universal method of communication developed by Lissitzky, Tschichold & Maholy Nagy & BAUHAUS in the 1920's. DNT's main contributions are: 1- rationality, 2- sans-serif typeface, 3- simplicity & legibility, asymmetric layout, photo-montage. Form dictates function. 

De Stijl: (Dutch: "The Style"), group of Dutch artists in Amsterdam in 1917, including the painters Piet Mondrian, Theo van Doesburg and the architect Jacobus Johannes, Pieter Oud among others. Its members, worked in an abstract style, seeking laws of equilibrium and harmony applicable both to art and to life. As a movement, De Stijl influenced painting, decorative arts (including furniture design), typography, and architecture, but it was principally architecture that realized both. Graphic artists: Theo van Doesburg, Piet Mondrian.

Swiss School of Graphic Design: developed in Switzerland in the 1950s. It emphasizes cleanliness, readability and objectivity. Hallmarks of the style are asymmetric layouts, use of a grid, sans-serif typefaces like Akzidenz Grotesk, and flush left, ragged right text. The style used photography instead of illustration. The idea was to improve communication, learning the principles of space and proportions. Graphic artists: Jan Tschichold, formulator of The New Typography and Theo Ballmer, Paul Rand Josef Müller-Brockman.

The Polish School of Design: It emerged in the late 1950s. After years of Social Realism being all-pervasive in art, Polish artistic life suddenly became much more exciting. A key figure is painter, drawer and graphic artist, Henryk Tomaszewski. He quickly gained the support of young and extremely talented artists who for years dedicated themselves to poster art. Graphic artists: Roman Cieslewicz, Wiesław Wałkuski, Waldemar Swierzy, Jan Lenica and Franciszek Starowieyski.

"The New York School":
The first wave of modern design in America, imported by talented immigrants from Europe. It introduces Americans to European avant-garde. While borrowing freely from the work of European designers, Americans added new forms and concepts to the tradition of graphic design. European design was theoretical and highly structured; American design was pragmatic, intuitive, and more informal in its approach to organizing space. Graphic artists: Paul Rand, Alvin Lustig, Saul Bass, Cipe Pineles, Alexey Brodovich, George Lois, etc.

Maximalism: (1990-today) as a genre in the arts said to emphasize work-intensive practices and concentrates on the process of creation itself. Works from this genre are generally bright, sensual, and visually rich. Maximalism is generally figurative, politically aware, socially inclined, usually erotic, ironic and humorous, both in concept and form.